a prescribed finite set of well defined rules or processes for the solutions of a problem in a finite number of steps.
explained in simple english, it is the mathematical formula for an operation, such as computing the check digits on packets of data that travel via packet switched networks.
this category is for sites that give information about academic departments, academic research groups, or any other type of academic unit (not industry, not commercial) that is actively involved in working with artificial intelligence.
for the title of your site, please submit name of parent institution first, then name of group. example: mississippi state university - ai laboratory.
please list the topics covered on the site, without going into detail.
artificial intelligence is a field of science that has several goals. the first, often called "weak" ai, is the effort to design and implement computer systems that can perform tasks requiring intelligence when performed by humans. ai in computer games, knowledge based systems and such are typical examples of this branch.
the second, less tangible branch, often called "strong" ai, is the research that ultimately aims to build artificial systems that display real intelligence. it does this by trying to understand or model the nature of human intelligence.
both branches are multidisciplinary, in that they have close relations with the fields of computer science, philosophy, medicine, psychology, biology and linguistics.
sites here must contain information about processes from nature.
this category is for artificial life information, simulations, discussions and related sub topics like art and games.
note that this category is not for phpbb web forums or similar community portals. sites listed in this category and its subcategories typically offer access via telnet protocol or are related to such sites.
if your site is really related to bulletin board systems (bbs), then please try to find the most appropriate sub-category.
bulletin board systems (bbs) have been around since the early 1980s in one form or another. typically a 'gathering area' for people with similar interests, they have adapted, grown, and survived as times changed. bbs systems, while not as popular as they once were, have begun seeing a new dawning in recent times.
they usually have a large variety of spam free topical message areas. online gaming. most have new and daily updated shareware files.
most have moved to the internet and offer web based interaction. no need to utilize the old ansi login style. although ansi logins are still widely available.
with over 15,000 traditional bbs's remaining in the united states alone they are a pleasant alternative to the normal web based browsing.
please submit english language sites in this category and its subcategories that directly inform about cad topics and related products.
no service businesses! those should instead be submitted to business/industrial_goods_and_services/engineering/cad or one of its subcategories.
no regional resellers! resellers and distributors of cad systems will be accepted to the category of the locality in the regional branch where their business is physically located.
computer aided design
computer software and (sometimes) hardware used to design things. a cad system might be as simple as a computerized drafting tool or as complex as a parametric mechanical constraint system, a routing and layout software for integrated electronic circuits, or an architectural program that knows about the physical and spatial properties of constructive elements in a building.
only "chats and forums" sites specific to computers, but not specific to any sub-topic of computers belong in this categrory.
sites not offering online chat / forum / bulletin board, or which offer other things in addition are not listed here. please look for another category based on the main topical focus of the site. deeplinks to message boards on already-listed sites will generally not be listed at all.
"chats and forums" sites covering topics not related to computers should be submitted under the best available category for their principle topic, or in the case of a general (multi-topic) forum to computers/internet/on_the_web/message_boards.
computers "chats and forums" sites focusing mostly (say about 75% or more) on a particular sub-topic of computers will not be listed here, and should instead be suggested under the narrowest sub-category of computers that covers that topic. if there''s a "chats and forums" sub-category of the topic category, that should be chosen instead, but if not, just suggest to the main category for the topic.
suggesting inappropriate sites to this category will only delay their review and potential listing by editors.
sites offering active discussion spanning a wide variety of computer-related topics. sites that are focused about 75% or more on a particular topic should be listed under that topic (or its chats_and_forums subcat should one exist) instead of here.
this category provides structural category topical navigation only. submitting sites here will virtually guarantee an excessively long delay in listing.
please note that editors will list sites topically by what they can discern from sites submitted here, and will likely not consider submitted descriptions in topically sorting a site. this being the case, it is important for submitters to focus their submissions exclusively to the topical category that best describes the computing business in which a company is primarily engaged.
we thank you for your cooperation and encourage you to volunteer to help create the best directory on the web.
this category provides a list of categories for navigational purposes to facilitate finding companies offering various computer services.
only sites related to the science of computers should be submitted. this includes research, experiments, and the like. this is not the category for just anything dealing with computers or programming. unless the link is related to computer science closely, it should be submitted to another, more appropriate, category. this speeds the acceptance process and makes the editors happy.
if you are a business, your link is most likely not appropriate for this category. only submit here if the link points to a section on research and development (and is more than just pr!).
finally, just to reiterate, we try to keep the standards high here and, while there is somewhere in the directory for your site, unless you are sure it is a computer science link then it''s probably not here.
computer science is the scientific discipline which aims to develop and advance knowledge related to computers and computation.
computer-related conferences and events are listed first by topic. if your site relates to an event which focusses on a specific sub-topic of computers, you should navigate to the most specific category for that topic first. if there is a specific conferences sub-category of that topic, then suggest your site there. if not, then suggest it to the main category for that topic. only sites for more general computing conferences, that span more than one of the sub-categories of computers will be considered for listing here.
sites for formal and informal conferences, meetings, trade shows, and workshops, and associated events that are related to computers.
please submit only sites to this category if the service offered is not local or not confined to one region. if the services are local or regional, they should be submitted to the appropriate regional category.
sites have a much better chance of being reviewed faster if they are submitted to the correct category.
two examples: if your business is primarily in new york, then you should submit your site to:
if your business operates primarily in england then your site should be submitted to:
a computer consultant is any person, presumably an expert, upon whom other people rely for information and advice about computer-related products and/or services. however, most self-styled computer consultants simply provide general information and advice in conjunction with the portfolio of computer-related products and services which they sell.
with the exception of those computer consultants who specialize in a particular type of hardware, software, or system, the easiest way to distinguish between computers consultants is by geographical location. accordingly, most computer consultants will be found listed under an appropriate computers: consultants: regional subcategory; if no geographical location or area of special expertise can be determined, computer consultants will be found listed under computers: consultants: general and freelance. however, some computer consultants will be listed under the main category of computers: consultants because they have a special service that does not fit into one of the various subcategories. this is a judgment call made by the odp editors who for some reason believe that these listings deserve to be highlighted in the main category.
if you are submitting a url to this directory, please keep in mind that all submissions must be reviewed by volunteer editors of the web directory project (odp)
. thus, multiple submissions of the same site to inappropriate categories will not improve your chances for being listed in this directory and may result in your site being blacklisted from odp. this may also happen if you submit your site to a number of directories which use odp data
, but forward new submissions to odp. please take a moment to review the odp editorial guidelines
, and carefully choose the odp categories to which you submit your site.
sites that are cable modem "informative" sites which detail specifics about what it is and how it works.
editor reserves right to change link and site description for category. please limit all site descriptions to less then 2-3 sentences.
the transfer of data between points. this includes all manual and machine operations necessary for this transfer. in short, the movement of encoded information by means of transmission systems.
few sites belong at this level.
suggesting inappropriate sites to this category will only delay their review and potential inclusion by the editors.
a set of specifications that defines the way different types of data should be stored in computer systems for use by applications or the end user.
this category is mainly for technical specifications of data formats. although it tries to also be helpful and help you find relevant software for and examples of these data formats.
this category is reserved only for informative desktop publishing (dtp), english language sites that may include content such as reference materials, design examples, research, tutorials, technique articles, technical explanations, discussions, user groups, tools, downloads, news, archives, and other helpful dtp resources. this category is not intended for commercial sites whose main purpose is to market or sell products or services. submit commercial sites to business, services, or shopping categories, for example. sites that do not comply with this category description will not be published in this category.
this category is specifically reserved for sites pertaining to the digital creation and production of visual communications on desktop computer systems. desktop publishing is normally considered to be a "closed-system" approach to producing printed or online publications, using a turn-key process that allows one to produce a graphic product, from concept to production, on a single computer system. in many cases, this form of graphic and textual content creation is achieved in a small scale environment, perhaps using computer components and peripherals that would fit on a single desktop, hence the name. (a simple system may consist of a desktop computer, laser printer, and scanner, for example.) the desktop publishing process may require several knowledge areas, including word processing, writing and editing, typography, page layout, design principles and elements, image editing, digital imaging, and printing. related to the graphic design and visual communications disciplines, desktop publishing product examples include videos, websites, logos, letterhead, magazines, newsletters, flyers, brochures and more.
please suggest sites to proper categories. it may help your site get listed sooner and will save work for the volunteer editors.
please suggest sites about electronic book technology. if your site does not contain general information about electronic books, please suggest it to a suitable subcategory or related category.
this is not the appropriate category to submit book reviews, books about computers, online texts, marketing sites, advertising, how to make money with e-books, or anything not related to the topic of e-books. sites selling e-books are listed in the linked shopping category.
sites with information about electronic books, including e-book guides, news reports on e-book business and technology, and pages about electronic book readers. also includes gateways to the related odp categories for e-book titles, stores, and publishers.
electronic books are a communications medium, just like regular books, or cd-roms, are communications mediums. types of electronic books include: electronic texts, or e-texts; and electronic reading devices.
company sites providing training in computers, software, etc. should be submitted to the commercial services sub-category. all non-english language sites belong in the appropriate world/ category.
all aspects of learning and teaching about and with computers including tutorials and teaching software.
please don''t submit any of the following here: due to legal threats from nintendo of america, inc no site containing rom images for any of the systems published by nintendo (including arcade machines) may be listed in the web directory project.
emulation is the process of simulating the hardware of one computer (particularly the processor) via software on a different one. in other words, it allows you to use software meant for another system that you may not have access to by running a program on your system. for instance, an emulator will let you use an arcade machine that no longer exist or use a game console that can no longer be purchased.
note that this category is different from games: video games: emulation
because the focus here is on the emulation of personal computer systems and operating systems
running on these.
please submit resources that discuss, aid, or establish a system of ethics for computer professionals and workers in related fields. please refrain from submitting links which point to questions of legality, such as copyright infringement, or of matters of social change, such as pending privacy legislation. resources on laws that relate to computer ethical questions, or resolve an ethical dilemma, may be acceptable.
there is currently no description created for this category.
sites offering general help and advice about computers. the content offered should cover several branches of computers hierarchy.
sites in this category should be very general in nature. if your site focusses on a specific aspect of computers (e.g. a certain application or software package) then please suggested it to the category for that specific aspect (or a suitable sub-category thereof) rather than here.
please go through the sub-categories available in the animation hierarchy, to see if your site fits in better there.
sites with pornographic content will not be listed in this category, even if they are animation-based. please submit such sites to the relevant sub-category in adult: arts: visual arts.
submit sites that transact online business related to animation to shopping: visual arts: computer graphics.
animation research related sites could be submitted to computers: computer science: computer graphics.
if you feel that your site is relevant to this category, but is in a language other than english, you can submit it to the appropriate sub-category in the world hierarchy.
the web directory project ( odp ) is a comprehensive directory of the web, relying on volunteer editors to cope with the volume of websites. we would appreciate it if you take the time to find the right category to submit your site in.
there is currently no description created for this category.
for quicker placement in the directory please follow these submission tips:
title: name of site or organization
description: this describes the website and should note distinguishing features found on the site without the use of hype, personal pronouns, or repetitive terms.
hacking is about gaining more knowledge through the use of computers.
this category contains links to sites about hacking, cracking, anarchy, credit card fraud and the like. it also lists information about exploits and the hacker culture.
it does not list links to sites that are offering passwords, or anything else which is illegal in the u.s.
please submit to a subcategory of hardware.
this area is for anything related to computer hardware including technical support sites, product reviews, and home built/kit hardware and just about anything else you can think of related to the physical world of computers.
to this category, please submit links about only the history of computer programming languages. please do not submit links providing general, tutorial, or reference information on programming languages. instead, such links likely belong somewhere in computers: programming: languages.
there is currently no description created for this category.
please submit only sites of broad scope on the topic of home automation devices to this category.
the field of home automation is expanding rapidly as electronic technologies converge. the home network encompasses communications, entertainment, security, convenience and information systems.
this category holds sites of broad scope on the topic.
please submit in this cat sites with general hci content. for sites specialized in a particular area choose one of the following :
papers focused on web usability
do not submit site specialized in pc repair, general computer education or tutorial, ... or non-english content site.
human-computer interaction (hci) covers a wide range of topics such as human characteristics, activities and behavior, the design of objects, relevant to the implementation of interactive computer systems and aimed to optimization of the relationship between technology and human.
read this before submitting your site
internet service providers (isps) are listed only in sub-categories of this main category. if your company that provides individuals
and companies access to the internet via dialup connections,
leased lines, and so forth, please look below this category for
the appropriate sub-category and submit your site there.
all internet service providers (isps)
that provide access to the internet,
are listed in the by
this category and its sub-categories are for english language sites. sites in other languages should be submitted to the most appropriate
category in world
if your company''s primary services are in web hosting and
domain name registration, please submit instead to web_design_and_development.
if your services are primarily web design, please submit instead
to the most appropriate category in web
following these guidelines will help prevent delays in having
your site listed.
this is not a category in which to be included. if you have a site which has to do with the internet, please look below this category for the appropriate one.
submission guidelines - the web directory project editors are committed to building the most useful directory on the internet. we want to help your promotion efforts by listing your site in a timely manner. we want your website to be found easily. by choosing the most appropriate category, you assist us in both these efforts.
sites which are incomplete, having under construction notices, or which contain broken graphics or links have a poor chance of being listed. please wait to submit your web site until it is complete. please double-check the url, and, if possible, include an e-mail address so we may contact you if we have questions.
sites should cover (but not limit themselves to) intranet:
- case studies
- advice or general information
a private network that uses internet software and internet standards. in essence, an intranet is a private internet reserved for use by people who have been given the access necessary to use that network. businesses often use intranets to allow easy hierarchical access to company information.
for intranet software (such as ready-built http servers) look in the software subcategory.
for consultants and business building intranets, look in the 'consultants and developers' subcategory.
sites for mailing lists which focus on a specific part of computing (for example: security, apple macs, graphics software, or web design), or indeed any non-computing topics, are generally listed under the category for that topic (in a mailing lists sub-category should one exist).
(see also computers: internet: e-mail: mailing_lists: by topic)
sites dealing with mailing list software and hosting services are listed under computers: internet: e-mail: mailing_lists
sites connected with actual mailing lists dealing with computers in general.
please do not submit multimedia sites to this category unless they are completely general in subject matter. there is a very high possibility that there is a sub-category which will fit your site better. please try and find the appropriate one.
this category is for very general sites covering the topic of multimedia.
multimedia is the combination of multiple forms of digital media such as text, images, sound, animation and video. it often includes interactivity and can be delivered on cd, dvd, hard drive or through the internet
very few sites will be listed at this level
suggesting inappropriate sites here will only delay their review and potential listing by editors.
- sites dealing with specific open source software projects should instead be suggested to an appropriate sub-category of computers: open source: software.
- sites related to linux (including specific distributions, such as ubuntu, debian, or rhel) should instead be suggested to an appropriate sub-category of computers: software: operating systems: linux.
- sites for consultants and companies, even if they focus on oss solutions, do not belong here. start looking for a more suitable category in either computers: consultants or computers: companies.
- for other sites, please look to see if there is a suitable sub-category before suggesting your site here.
this category is for information about open source -- the movement, the philosophy, the people, and of course, to some extent, the products. (probably most of the actual software packages will be in computers/software somewhere, but there should be cross links where appropriate.)
official definition of open source
very few sites are listed in this category. submitting inappropriate sites here will only delay their review and potential listing by editors.
only very general computer-related organizations with a wide scope will be listed here.
- computer-related business sites are not listed here. see computers: consultants, computers: companies, or business: information technology instead.
- organisations which focus on a particular aspect or topic of computers, are listed instead under that topic or aspect. start from computers and navigate down to find the best topic-related category for your site.
- certain forms of general computer-related organizations, will be listed in a sub-category of computers: organizations, rather than the main category this one. if there is a suitable sub-category for your site (e.g. associations, committees, working groups, user groups), you should look there rather than submitting your site here.
general computer-related organizations.
sites submitted to this category should contain substantial information specific to beowulfs. if your site is generally about parallel programming or other types of parallel computers, please submit it to the main parallel computing category.
parallel computing is the science and art of programming computers that can do more than one operation at once, concurrently, during the same cycle, often via having more than one processor. some parallel computers are just regular workstations that have more than one processor in them; others are giant single computers with many processors (these are generally referred to as supercomputers
); and others are networks of individual computers. a network of computers configured to coordinate on computing problems is also called a cluster
. parallel computers can run some types of programs far faster than traditional single processor computers, often termed the von neumann architecture.
programs that work on a single-processor computer don't automatically work on a parallel computer. programmers must explicitly specify how to divide up the computing work between all available nodes
. information about writing programs especially for parallel computers is in parallel_computing/programming
. many people have written libraries
to help programmers write programs for parallel computers.
parallel computing is a very similar field to distributed computing
. both types of computing involve breaking apart a problem into many pieces and assigning each part to a computer, but the nodes of a distributed computer
normally not communicate with each other while performing their computations, because they may be great distances apart. sites related to distributed computing are in computers/computer_science/distributed_computing
information about supercomputers is located in computers/supercomputing
please suggest relevant sites only, directly to the appropriate subcategory when available.
the field of performance and capacity is a cross between operating systems and application analysis and programming on one side, and mathematical statistics on the other.
a few years ago performance and capacity was mainly a mainframe related job performed by mvs gurus.
it entered the unix servers world in the 1991 - 1992 time frame, and became very visible with the emergence of web related applications servers.
while in the mvs world it was expensive to waste system resources, in the web world it's expensive not having enough resources to sustain a competitive response time.
submissions should not include compilers for specific languages, which must be submitted elsewhere to proper subcategories for the source languages involved. systems for generating separate compiler components (lexers/parsers, code generators or transformation tools) or cross-compilers must be submitted to their respective subcategories under /compilers.
computer programming is the art of writing software, instructions for computers to follow. at the base level, as understood by the computer, these instructions are written in machine code
, or binary
, pure numbers, quite difficult for humans to read and write. at a slightly higher level, these codes correspond to assembly language
, short mnemonics for individual computer operations, that still correspond one to one with what the machine actually does. this is still unstructured, terse, and difficult to read or write in. most programming is done in higher level, compiled
languages, or even interpreted
that look like a cross between english and algebra, and allow various abstractions depending on the language, such as encapsulation, function calls, data hiding, and more, to enable people reading and writing programs to deal with the vast quantity of information that the computer actually handles. respectively, a compiler
program translates these languages to machine code to be executed directly, or a separate interpreter
program itself takes these statements and executes them as an intermediary.
robotics is a high-level category. almost all sites should go in a subcategory unless they are very general in nature covering many aspects of robotics.
robotics is a term coined by isaac asimov to describe the field of science involving robots and related technologies. so what is a robot? the word comes from a 1923 czech play called r.u.r. and described autonomous, humanoid robot servants. the original czech word was robota
, which means "servitude or forced labor".
according to the syrius cybernetics corporation of douglas adams' hitchiker's guide to the galaxy, a robot is "your plastic pal who's fun to be with". a more conventional definition is, "a mechanical device that sometimes resembles a human and is capable of performing a variety of often complex human tasks". there are many other definitions, some a bit too narrow and some far too broad.
we try to be as inclusive as possible, accepting sites about hobby robotics, industrial robotics, even those about the radio-controlled entertainment vehicles of "robot wars". enjoy our selections. and if you don't agree with some of our choices, rest easy in the knowledge that someone else out there wouldn't agree with yours.
sites are presently not listed at computers/security level. please find an appropriate subcategory for your submission.
concerns the protection of system resources and data from unauthorized use or access in stand alone or networked environments.
security measures are implemented through a combination of software, hardware and physical restrictions. they can operate across different selections of content from individual files up to an entire networked enterprise.
tools used to secure systems environments include authentication systems, intrusion detection systems, firewalls, anti-virus software, biometrics, virtual private networks and cryptography.
no sites will be listed in the http://www.dmoz.org/computers/shopping main index.
please read the category faq, http://editors.dmoz.org/computers/shopping/faq.html for pointers on where to send site suggestions.
in this category you'll find resources and links to categories related to the process of shopping for computers. also, unique gifts for computer users.
please only submit non-download sites. all download sites should go in the sub-catagory called "file downloads"
in order to handle the large number of sites that are added to the software category every day, the editors of this category ask that you please choose an appropriate subcategory for your link. if you do not feel that any of the existing categories are appropriate, please feel free to contact an editor.
please do not submit a link more than once. if your link does not appear in a few days, please be patient. a link does not usually belong in more than one category, or a few at most. submissions to numerous inappropriate categories will be considered spam, and will cause the link to be deleted from the directory.
please note that the software category receives many submissions that are more appropriate to other categories. if you or your organization develop web sites as your primary service, you should submit your link to a subcategory of computers/internet/commercial_services
the odp computers/software team
when submitting your site please make sure that you do not confuse "voice recognition" with "speech recognition."
technically "voice recognition" to the industry means speaker verification and identification, i.e., who is speaking - is it alex or jane?. speech recognition is the identification of content - what did alex say?
this category does not, therefore, take "speech recognition" to be synonymous with "voice recognition." please make sure your site uses these terms properly before submitting your site.
dictation equipment should go to shopping/office_products/equipment/.
this category tracks significant software/hardware advances, companies and sites in the area of speech processing, recognition and voice control for computers.
speech recognition provides the ability for computers, cars, domestic utilities, etc to recognize what words a user is saying. for example a car may be able to recognize a driver saying “cd” to turn on the cd player, or “wipers” to turn on windscreen wipers. a word processor on a pc may be able to recognize what is said to and automatically type it into a document
voice recognition is usually just used as another term for speech recognition. however occasionally it is used to mean a computer/device recognizing someone’s unique voice rather than what they are actually saying.
this category does not, therefore, take "speech recognition" to be synonymous with "voice recognition."
conferences about parallel computing are listed in computers/parallel_computing/conferences. conferences about distributed computing are listed in computers/computer_science/distributed_computing/conferences_and_workshops. general computer science conferences are listed in computers/computer_science/conferences.
a supercomputer is, generally, a really big and fast computer. the standard of what exactly constitutes a supercomputer has evolved with the capabilities of the computing industry. supercomputers contain many processors and often take up entire rooms. they can do anything a normal computer can do, but usually much, much faster.
this category contains information about supercomputers, including (but not limited to) companies that manufacture supercomputers, supercomputing facilities, news articles about supercomputers, and supercomputing conferences.
information about writing programs to run on supercomputers is in computers/parallel_computing.
descriptions must be concise and objective as possible - don''t editorialize or give your opinion. so-called hype, marketing, or spin is not encouraged. all submissions will be reviewed by an editor before inclusion.
title: company name only
description: keep descriptions short - 1 to 2 sentences is preferred. list your major products/services/offerings for instance: "product name1 - db maintenance tool, product name2 - system analyzer," etc.
say what makes your services different.
a collection of computer hardware and operating systems components designed to work together. often referred to as a "platform". examples of common computer systems include the intel pc, macintosh, next, sun workstation, ibm as/300, and hp 9000.
this sub-category of etiquette does not overlap with
please also check the other subcategories.
please make sure your link is submitted to the most appropriate of these categories.
usenet, or netnews, is a world-wide distributed discussion system. traditional access to newsgroups, or discussion fora, requires newsreader software and access to a newsserver. many isps provide access to a newsserver as part
of their service package.
this category provides general information about usenet.
note: quicktime vr and interactive photographic scenes and objects should be submitted to the quicktime vr subcategory.
only true 3d virtual reality sites are allowed in the main section.
virtual reality (vr) and emersive virtual environments.